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. On The Way

Zen's Chinese Heritage



Guishan Da'an addressed the monks saying, "what are you all seeking from me by coming here? If you want to become a buddha, then you should know that you yourself are Buddha. Why are you running around from place to place like a thirsty deer chasing a mirage? When will you ever succeed?

You want to be a buddha, but you won't recognize that your topsy-turvy contradictory ideas; your deluded understandings; your mind which believes in innumerable beings, purity and pollution; that it is just this mind that is the authentic original awakened mind of Buddha. Where else will you go to find it?

I've spent the last thirty years here on Mt Gui, eating Guishan's rice, but not practicing Guishan's Zen! I just mind an old water buffalo. If he wanders off the road into the grass then I pull him back by his nose ring. If he eats someone else's rice shoots then I use the whip to move him away. After such a long training period he's become very lovable, and he obeys my words. Now he pulls the Great Vehicle, always staying where I can see him the whole day through, and he can't be driven away.

Each of you has a priceless treasure. There is light emanating from your eyes which illuminates mountains, rivers, and the great earth. There is light radiating from our ears which apprehends all good and evil sounds. The six senses- day and night they emanate light and this is called the "light emanating samadhi." You yourself can't comprehend it, but it is reflected in the four great bodies. It is completely supported within and without, and never unbalanced. It's like someone with a heavy load on his back, crossing a bridge made form a single tree trunk, but never losing his step.

And now if you ask what is it that provides this support and where it is revealed, then I just say that not a single hair of it can be seen. No wonder the monk Zhigong said, "Searching inside and out you'll find nothing. Actions in the causational realm are a big muddle."

Take care!
Guishan Da'an (793883)

- taken from Zen's Chinese Heritage; The Masters and Their Teachings
by Andrew Ferguson
Wisdom Publications 2000




Guishan's reference to the water buffalo image reminds us of the Oxherding Pictures in Zen. There are 4 varieties of Oxherding Pictures, one dating to 1585. All share the attempt to illustrate by means of pictures the stages of Zen practice.

As a complement to the above piece let's explore the image further...



The Ten Oxherding Pictures
- by Kaku-an

1. Searching for the Ox.

The beast has never gone astray, and what is the use of searching for him? The reason why the oxherd is not on intimate terms with him is because the oxherd himself has violated his own inner nature. The beast is lost, for the oxherd has himself been led out of the way through his deluding senses.

Alone in the wilderness, lost in the jungle, the boy is searching, searching! The swelling waters, the far-away mountains, and the unending path; exhausted and in despair, he knows not where to go. He only hears the evening cicadas singing in the maple-woods.

* * *

2. Seeing the Traces.

By the aid of the sutras and by inquiring into the doctrines, he has come to understand something, he has found the traces. He now knows that vessels, however varied, are all of gold, and that the objective world is a reflection of the Self. Yet, he is unable to distinguish what is good from what is not, his mind is still confused as to truth and falsehood. As he has not yet entered the gate, he is provisionally said to have noticed the traces.

By the stream and under the trees, scattered are the traces of the lost; the sweet-scented grasses are growing thick-did he find the way? However remote over the hills and far away the beast may wander, his nose reaches the heavens and none can conceal it.

* * *

3. Seeing the Ox.

The boy finds the way by the sound he hears; he sees thereby into the origin of things, and all his senses are in harmonious order. In all his activities, is it manifestly present. It is like salt in water... When the eye is properly directed, he will find that it is no other than himself.

On a yonder branch perches a nightingale cheerfully singing; the sun is warm, and a soothing breeze blows. On the banks the willows are green; the ox is there all by himself, nowhere is he to hide himself. The splendid head decorated with stately horns - what painter can reproduce him?

* * *

4. Catching the Ox.

Long lost in the wilderness, the boy has at last found the ox and his hands are on him. But, owing to the overwhelming pressure of the outside world, the ox is hard to keep under control. He constantly longs for the old sweet-scented field. The wild nature is still unruly, and altogether refuses to be broken.

With the energy of his whole being, the boy has at last taken hold of the ox. But how wild his will, how ungovernable his power! At times he struts up a plateau, when lo! He is lost again in a misty unpenetrable mountain pass.

* * *

5. Herding the Ox.

When a thought moves, another follows, and then another - an endless train of thoughts is thus awakened. Through enlightenment all this turns into truth; but falsehood asserts itself when confusion prevails. Things oppress us not because of an objective world, but because of a self-deceiving mind. Do not let the nose-string loose, hold it tight, and allow no vacillation.

The boy is not to separate himself with his whip and tether, lest the animal should wander away into a world of defilements. When the ox is properly tended to, he will grow pure and docile. Without a chain, nothing binding, he will by himself follow the oxherd.

* * *

6. Coming Home on the Ox's Back.

The struggle is over; the man is no more concerned with gain and loss. He hums a rustic tune of the woodsman, he sings simple songs of the village-boy. Saddling himself on the ox's back, his eyes are fixed on things not of the earth. Even if he is called, he will not turn his head; however enticed he will no more be kept back.

Riding on the animal, he leisurely wends his way home. Enveloped in the evening mist, how tunefully the flute vanishes! Singing a ditty, beating time, his heart is filled with a joy indescribable! That he is now one of those who know, need it be told?

* * *

7. To Ox Forgotten, Leaving the Man Alone.

The dharmas are one and the ox is symbolic. When you know that what you need is not the snare or set-net but the hare or fish, it is like gold separated from the dross, it is like the moon rising out of the clouds.

Riding on the animal, he is at last back in his home, where lo! The ox is no more; the man alone sits serenely. Thought the red sun is high up in the sky, he is still quietly dreaming. Under a straw-thatched roof are his whip and rope idly lying.

* * *

8. The Ox and the Man Both Gone out of Sight.

All confusion is set aside, and serenity alone prevails; even the idea of holiness does not obtain. He does not linger about where the Buddha is, and as to where there is no Buddha he speedily passes by. When there exists no form of dualism, even a thousand-eyed one fails to detect a loop-hole.

All is empty - the whip, the rope, the man, and the ox. Who can ever survey the vastness of heaven? Over the furnace burning ablaze, not a flake of snow can fall: When this state of things obtains, manifest is the spirit of the ancient master.

* * *

9. Returning to the Origin, Back to the Source.

From the very beginning, pure and immaculate, the man has never been affected by defilement. He watches the growth of things, while himself abiding in the immovable serenity of non-assertion. He does not identify himself with the maya-like transformations that are going on about him, nor has he any use of himself with is artificiality. The waters are blue, the mountains are green; sitting alone, he observes things undergoing changes.

To return to the Origin, to be back at the Source - already a false step this! Far better it is to stay at home, blind and deaf, and without much ado. Sitting in the hut, he takes no cognisance of things outside. Behold the streams flowing whither nobody knows, and the flowers vividly red - for whom are they?

* * *

10. Entering the City with Bliss Bestowing Hands.

His thatched cottage gate is closed, and even the wisest know him not. No glimpses of this inner life are to be caught; for he goes on his own way without following the steps of the ancient sages. Carrying a gourd he goes out to the market, leaning against a staff he comes home. His is found in company with wine-bibbers and butchers, he and they are all converted to Buddhas.

Bare-chested and bare-footed, he comes out into the marketplace. Daubed with mud and ashes, how broadly he smiles! There is no need for the miraculous power of the gods, for he touches, and lo! The trees are in full bloom.

* * *


- printed version available here:
Zen Flesh, Zen Bones; A Collection of Zen and Pre-Zen Writings
by Paul Reps, Nyogen Senzaki
Charles E Tuttle Co.

Note: We'd like to share the full series of the Oxherding images with you on this site, but they are copyrighted. To view these online from another site (with permission from the publisher) please click here.





your host, the monkess
May we remain mindful of the Ox!
The Monkess


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